As an inseparable part of our diet, tomato products like paste, puree, or sauce it is worth for us to know that what components and content like lycopene they have and whether they are healthy and beneficial for our body or not.
The scientific name of the tomato plant is Solanum lycopersicum (C. Linneo, 1753), and its meaning is as follows: Solanum, derived from Latin “sólor” = I comfort, relief; lycopersicum, derived from Greek “lkos” = wolf and “pérsicum” = fishing, meaning fishing the wolves; tomato, derived from Latin “sólor” = I comfort, relief;
The fruit of the tomato plant is a fleshy berry, and the size of this fruit varies depending not only on the kind of tomato plant, but also on the environmental circumstances and growing methods that were used.
The number of berries on a plant has an inverse relationship to the amount of weight gain that may be expected from each individual berry (less tomatoes are on the plant and the larger they become.) The skin and seeds of the tomato are where the majority of the fibers (both cellulose and hemicellulose) are found.
The tomato is high in water content and low in sugar content. The presence of certain organic acids, in particular citric acid and malic acid, in the pulp is what contributes to the fruit’s recognizable flavor.
Vitamins and minerals
The tomato is an excellent source of vitamin C and delivers all of the water-soluble vitamins that the body needs. Because of this, the iron absorption is improved, and the bone marrow is better able to produce hemoglobin and red blood cells. All it takes is one tomato that is about the size of a medium-sized apple to provide about 40 percent of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C for an adult male, which is 80 milligrams.
In addition, it is a rich source of the B vitamins (B1, B2, and B6), which are known to stimulate the turnover of cells and the oxygenation of the body’s tissues.
These are the cartenoids.
Carotenoids are a category of pigments that get their name from carotene, a chemical that was discovered for the first time in the common carrot. Carotene has an orange-yellow color. Carotenoids are a type of pigment that can range in color from yellow to violet and can be found in a variety of natural sources.
Carotenoids have been extracted from plants, algae, bacteria, and even some mammalian creatures. Plants are the only source of these chemicals for animals, including humans, because animals lack the ability to synthesis them themselves.
Carotenoids are the pigments that give foods their vibrant colors, such as the red pigment found in tomatoes (lycopene), the orange pigment found in carrots and maize (zeaxanthin), the yellow pigment found in saffron (crocetine), and so on.
Because they are produced during the ripening process, these pigments are never detectable in the unripe fruits.
One of the carotenoids that helps give tomatoes their red color is called beta-carotene, and a single tomato that weighs 100 grams can supply up to 15 percent of the amount of beta-carotene that should be consumed on a daily basis.
Provitamin A is found in tomatoes in the form of beta-carotene. Lycopene is yet another carotenoid that is found in tomatoes, and it possesses a wide variety of impressive health benefits.
Lycopene, also known as C40H56, is the most frequent type of carotenoid pigment found in tomatoes. It is responsible for the tomatoes’ distinctive red color. The variety, degree of maturity, ambient conditions, and growing techniques all play a significant role in determining its existence to a significant degree.
The average amount of lycopene found in mature tomatoes is approximately 50 mg/kg, however the lycopene content of certain tomato types can reach as high as 70 mg/kg.
It is possible to attain 12 mg per 100 gr of wet product, which is about 5 times the concentration that is ordinarily found in the pulp. The content of lycopene is extremely high in the skin and pericarp of tomatoes.
Because of this component, we are able to comprehend the fact that peeled tomatoes have a lower lycopene content in comparison to whole tomatoes or purees, both of which undergo a technological process that enriches the final product with some of the byproducts that originate from the peeled tomatoes. Lycopene, unlike some other carotenoid pigments (such as beta-carotene), is not a provitamin A.
This means that the human body does not convert lycopene into vitamin A. When tomatoes are heated to temperatures between 90 and 150 degrees Celsius during processing, the overall amount of lycopene in the tomatoes is significantly reduced.
If the temperature is maintained at less than one hundred degrees Celsius throughout the heat treatment, the amount of lycopene that is degraded is minimal at best.
In modern times, the manufacture of tomato puree and tomato concentrate is carried out in accordance with the Cold Break method. This method involves the processing of fresh tomatoes at temperatures ranging from 65 to 75 degrees Celsius.
an activity that fights tumors
Tomatoes play a significant role in the Mediterranean diet, which has been linked with lower rates of cancer . The consumption of tomato has been linked to a reduced risk of developing a variety of neoplasms, as demonstrated by a number of epidemiological studies .
Lycopene appears to be capable of suppressing the proliferation of tumor cells, inhibiting growth factor, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis .
Lycopene has been demonstrated in a number of studies to have effects against chemotherapy and radioresistance in cancer cells , meaning that it can be coupled with other cancer treatments that are currently being administered.
Consumption of tomato-based products has been shown to be associated with a potential reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer, according to additional research.
Recent research  has established a connection between lycopene and the protective benefits. 1979 marked the beginning of one of the earliest investigations into the potential value of lycopene as a cancer-preventative agent for the esophagus, which was carried out in Northern Iran.
It has been demonstrated that the consumption of lycopene on a weekly basis, in a group of participants that were evaluated, was directly connected with the reduction of a chance of developing a tumor in the esophagus by a factor of forty percent .
It has been demonstrated that having high levels of lycopene in the blood is related to having a lower risk of developing cancer of the mucosal lining of the stomach . It has been demonstrated that people who have high amounts of lycopene in their blood are far less likely to acquire pancreatic cancer .
This reduction in risk can be as much as five times. It has been demonstrated through research that women who have high plasma levels of lycopene (in addition to other carotenoid levels) are one-third less likely to develop cervical cancer.